Musical Notations and Instruments
Folk music plays an important part in Armenia's rich artistic heritage.
It is eminently traditional and has a resonance characterized by a
delicate structure. Naturally, even today it has an important place
in the life of the people. Armenian music is ancient in origin and
continuous in development as seen from pre-Christian mural paintings,
archaeological finds, the earliest historical chronicles, mediaeval
miniatures, and the songs themselves, some of which have transmitted
elements from pagan civilization. From the fifth to the third millennia
B.C., for example, in the higher regions of Armenia there are rock
paintings of scenes of country dancing. These dances were probably
accompanied by certain kinds of songs or musical instruments. Archaeological
excavations have uncovered in various parts of Armenia bronze sleigh
bells and small hand bells from the second millennium B.C. These instruments
were used for the musical accompaniment of ceremonial rituals. In
the Lake Sevan region a cornet and drum skins have been discovered
dating from the first millennium. At Karmir Blur, near Erevan, bronze
cymbals have also been found. Garni and Dvin double-flutes, probably
used by shepherds, made of stork's claw bones have been uncovered.
All levels of the population loved and practiced music: Tigran II
and his son Artavazd II had royal musicians in their court. In the
fifth century Moses of Khoren (Movsés Khorenats'i) himself
had heard of how "the old descendants of Aram (that is Armenians)
make mention of these things (epic tales) in the ballads for the lyre
and their songs and dances." The Epic Histories attributed to
P'awstos Buzand, describe a royal feast of the fourth century, during
which an orchestra of drums, flutes, trumpets and lyre players performed
their polyphonic music for King Pap.
Contemporary musicology confirms the thesis that the main characteristics
of Armenian national music are distinguished by a monotone, single
voice structure and a special tonal system. Melodic and rhythmic inventions
were created parallel to the formation and evolution of the spoken
Over time, the treasure of popular melodies was constantly enriched
with fervor. The ballad "Mokats' Mirza," the vast national
epic David of Sasun, a colorful narrative about the period of Arab
occupation of Armenia, and other songs dating back to the Urartian
period (ninth to sixth centuries B.C.) are musical documents that
represent the ancient branch of the epic-minstrel style of Armenian
folk music. The two periods that extend from the fifth to the seventh
and from the tenth to the thirteenth centuries mark decisive stages
in the evolution of this music.
At both times, numerous masterpieces were created in every domain:
pastoral songs, urban music, ancient troubadour style, verse songs
for male voice, religion. Music was adapted to a wide range of uses:
work, lyricism, epic-historic-heroic, morality and character, etc.
The hymns dedicated to work and the pastoral life that have been preserved
are of high quality, including improvised horovels, songs dedicated
to nature, hayerens and antunis, mediaeval compositions sung by the
troubadours. Profane songs in verse also date from these periods.
In the late Middle Ages, when Armenia lost its sovereignty and was
divided between the Ottoman Empire and Persia, the sentiment of the
people assimilated and inspired songs of nostalgia and sorrow. From
this period come works dedicated to migration and homelessness: Krunk,
Kanch' Krunk, Antuni, etc. In the seventeenth century the Armenian
branch of the oriental style of minstrel music developed thanks to
the troubadours Sayat Nova and Jivan.
Musical instruments held a very special place in the customs of the
Armenian nation during the Middle Ages, as the historians and poets
of this period relate in their numerous reports. For example, Nersés
Shnorhali when speaking of the city of Ani, says, "There was
always singing and lyre playing." In mediaeval miniatures representations
of all musical instruments -- string [263, 267, 268], wind [99, 116,
268], and percussion [116, 266] -- are depicted. These instruments,
which in a general way are common to all people of the Near East,
always maintained regional particularities faithful to the musical
characteristics of each nation and true to its particular conceptions
and aesthetic tastes.
In the fourth century Armenia adopted Christianity as its state religion,
but it was especially in the fifth century, after the creation of
the Armenian alphabet, that there was a notable development in sacred
music used in churches to replace the earlier pagan variety. Yet,
Christian hymns still used or were inspired by important elements
from the pagan tradition and even adopted some of its ancient melodies.
In the fifth century schools of higher education (Vardapetanots')
to train doctors of theology were created beside Armenian monasteries;
music was among the subjects taught in them. Thanks to the efforts
of the discovers of the new alphabet, Mesrop Mashtots' and Sahak Partev,
the foundations of artistic musical composition were born. Musical
and aesthetic theories were greatly developed, giving birth to the
creation of special musical signs. The composition of these characters
(to indicate ancient Armenian pronunciation and explicit signs for
reading the music) together with the musical notes themselves, led
to the birth of the khazes [262, 264, 265, 266]. Fragments of ninth
century manuscripts already using these khazes have been discovered.
Later, between the twelfth and thirteenth centuries [264, 265, 266]
this system of musical annotation was to be developed.
When comparing surviving documents of religious music such as hymns
called sharakans in Armenian with non-canonical songs, one notes that
a different system of musical signs or khazes is used for the latter.
This khazographic system was developed over time and perfected to
enable the exact registering of songs with every element needed to
form a particular category. These notations found in numerous ancient
Armenian musical manuscripts [261, 262, 264, 265, 266] kept at the
Matenadaran in Erevan and in similar libraries throughout the world
have still not been satisfactorily deciphered. From the fifteenth
century on the khazes were understood less and less and, therefore,
rarely used. By the nineteenth century they disappeared completely.
The oral transmission of just how these melodies were to be sung survived.
These unwritten melodies were transcribed in a new musical annotation
system created by Hamparts'um Limonjian in 1813 in Constantinople.
This superior transcription system enabled the preservation of a rich
treasure of vocal and instrumental art. The prevailing styles of this
newly transcribed music are that of the sharakans (religious hymns),
odes, and other religious works. These works were gathered and studied
at the turn of the twentieth century by the eminent Armenian musicologist
and compose Komitas Vardapet .
One of the important particularities of Armenian religious music is
that it is very similar to genuine folk songs and their style. In
spite of the painful vicissitudes that have almost permanently been
imposed on the Armenians, they have preserved their music and transmitted
a vast repertory of both melancholic and joyous melodies. Folk music,
popular professional music, minstrel songs and Armenian medieval monody,
taken as a whole, cannot be classified either as Oriental or Occidental.
It has a musical character of its own with very rich means of expression.
Valery Brussov, the well-known translator of Armenian poetry, once
said that this music reflects "pain without falling into despair,
passion without grief, and admiration without indulgence."
This complex and ancient heritage has played a decisive role, in every
respect, in the process of creating a distinctively national Armenian
music in the modern period. Armenian classical music still turns to
national elements for its compositions. Such a tradition reinforces
the artistic aspirations and creative imagination of composers, artists,
and the public alike in all domains of musical life. Folk music is
still very much alive in Armenia and in the diaspora. Such traditional
instruments as the saz [263, 270], kaman [267, 271], kamanch'a ,
t'ar , sant'ur or canon [268, 274], and percussions [116, 266,
275] still form an integral part of folk ensembles.
Printing and Engraving
After the creation of a special alphabet, the growth of printing
was, for humanity as it was for Armenians, the next major step toward
the universal diffusion of knowledge and the propagation of civilization.
Because of a precarious geographical location, Armenia's primary
concern was the preservation of her language and religion when national
independence disappeared after the fourteenth century. Only by enormous
sacrifice, both material and physical, was it possible to create
Armenian schools and churches, open printing houses, and publish
books in the native language. Just sixty years after the discovery
of printing by Gutenberg, when a good number of advanced nations
enjoyed independent power and financial security for the preservation
of their language and culture, certain Armenians, fleeing their
devastated country for different corners of the globe, through an
immense personal effort also established printing houses. The latter,
by the publication and diffusion of works in Armenian, created a
resource of knowledge not just for Armenians in the diaspora, but
also for their compatriots who suffered the vexatious yolk of foreign
The first Armenian printer was Yakob (Hakob), a person of great
accomplishment and humility, considering the contribution he made
to his nation. Modestly he took the nick name Meghapart (Sinful).
Hakob Meghapart founded, very far from Armenia, in Venice, by who
knows what difficulties, a printing house and published the first
book in Armenian characters -- Urbat'agirk' (Prayer book and Almanac)
in 1511 or 1512 . His efforts resulted in five different titles
suited to the interest and needs of his nation, thus Urbat'agirk'
is a mixture of rhymed prayers, tales inspired by legends and incantational
prayers taken from amulets. It also contains the Holy Mass and the
liturgical prayers used in the Armenian Church. Another book, the
anthology Aght'ark, contains astrological and medicinal works. Parzatomar
is a calendar-almanac, while Tagharan  is an anthology of poetic
works in which Armenian authors from the Middle Ages, such as Nersés
Shnorhali, Frik, Hovhannés T'lkurants'i, and Mkrtich' Naghash,
were published for the first time.
The second Armenian printer was Abgar Dpir of Tokat , who undertook
his typographic activities some fifty years after those of Hakob
Meghapart in the same city of Venice. In 1565 on an over-sized sheet
Abgar Dpir published the first Armenian calendar under the title
Kharnayp'nt'or tomari (Universal Calendar) and then edited a book
of Psalms . Eager to bring his work nearer to his own country,
he moved his printing house to Constantinople and there continued
with the publication of several precious works.
The third printer was Hovhannés Terznets'i, who, together
with Abgar Dpir's son, Sultanshah, translated and edited The Gregorian
Calendar in 1584 in Rome . The names of these four, Hakob,
Abgar, Sultanshah and Hovhannés, are known to us through
their printed books. During the first century of the Armenian press,
there were also non-Armenians who were printing with Armenian characters,
called Mesropian after the founder of the alphabet. For example
in the Armenological works of Guillaume Postel, Ambrosius Theseus,
Leonhart Thurneisser, and the orientalism of Palma Cayet samples
of printing in Armenian characters can be found.
During the centuries following the discovery of printing, numerous
Armenian presses were created in various Italian towns. On the basis
of the quality of books published, the number of works issued, and
the longevity of the endeavor, the Mekhitarist Publishing House
[290, 1794] on the island of San Lazzaro in Venice lagoon is of
particular importance. It was established in the eighteenth century,
and in its time played a major role in the renaissance and evolution
of Armenian culture.
At first the Catholic Armenian Mekhitarist Fathers had their works
printed by the Italian Antonio Bortoli, but later they set up their
own presses. These have been in continuous service since 1788 and
have gained a universal reputation for the high quality and technique
of production. In 1776 a splinter group of the Mekhitarist Fathers
established themselves in Trieste where they founded a second printing
center from which some sixty precious titles were published .
In 1811 these fathers moved from Trieste to Vienna, where until
today they continue to sponsor works in the Armenian language or
related to Armenology.
In the second hundred years of Armenian publishing activity, there
was a notable increase in the number of printers. Hovhannés
K'armatanents' edited books in Armenian in Lvov, Poland, Hovhannés
of Ankara and Nahapet Giwlnazar in Venice, Hovhannés Jughayets'i
in Leghorn (Livorno), Italy, etc. Special attention should be paid
to the printing firm founded by the Primate of the Armenians in
Iran, Khach'atur of Caesarea , in the seventeenth century in
New Julfa. He struggled to propagate culture among the faithful
of his jurisdiction. He opened schools and libraries, had churches
built, collected manuscripts and undertook the difficult task of
publishing books locally.
If in the early sixteenth century when Hakob Meghapart was starting
his typographic activities there were already more than 200 printing
houses at work in Venice, Khach'atur founded his press in Persia
where none had previously existed and he himself had never personally
seen one. In 1641, works such as Life of the Fathers (Harants' vark')
 were issued from the new installation of New Julfa. Its quality
was not very high, but it was a pioneer undertaking, since it was
not only the first book in any language to be published in Iran,
but it was also the first one printed in the whole of the Near East.
It is noteworthy that both paper and ink were made individually.
Amsterdam was also an important center for the history of Armenian
printing thanks to Voskan Erevants'i and the Vanandets'i family.
Voskan rendered great service to the evolution of Armenian culture
by publishing the first Armenian Bible in 1666 . It has never
been equaled in its typographic and artistic conception. The famous
Dutch artist-bookbinder Albert Magnus executed the binding of certain
copies; these remain among the prized volumes of libraries in Paris,
Leiden, and Amsterdam. In the Holy Etchmiadzin printing house founded
in the eighteenth century Voskan Erevants'i and his followers edited
works such as: Girk' ashkharats'oyts' (Book of Geography) in 1668
 and Aghuesagirk' (Book of Fables) of Vardan Aygekts'i originally
thought to be the work of Movsés of Khoren, the History of
Arak'el of Tabriz (Tavrizhets'i), the first Armenian book printed
during the lifetime of its author, Girk' aghot'its' (Book of Prayers)
 in 1772 and K'erakanut'ean girk' (Grammar), etc.
To escape his creditors Voskan moved his printing business to Marseilles
and published sixteen other works, among them Girk' aghot'its',
the first edition of Gregory of Narek's works, and the volume entitled
Arhest hamaroghut'ean, the first Armenian arithmetic book to be
printed and among the first works to be written in vernacular Armenian
or ashkharapar. Voskan Erevants'i was not content with just publishing
high quality books of rich content, but he also increased production
by raising the number of copies of a title to 3,000. He set up permanent
Armenian language printing establishments and trained a whole generation
of printers, who in turn founded their own firms in Amsterdam, Leghorn,
Constantinople, Smyrna, and other cities.
In the seventeenth century Tovmas, Ghukas and Matt'éos Vanandets'i
through their presses established in Amsterdam dramatically improved
the art of Armenian printing [286, 287]. Between 1610 and 1717 they
published more than twenty precious titles, including The History
of the Armenians by Movsés Khorenats'i, Thesaurus linguae
Armenicae by Joannes Schröder and the first printed map in
Armenian, World Map  which even today commands admiration not
only for the fine quality of its execution, but also for its precision.
In the eighteenth century the main center of Armenian printing moved
from Europe to Constantinople. After works published in Constantinople
by Abgar Dpir T'okhat'ets'i, there was an hiatus of a hundred years.
During the eighteenth century more than twenty printers were active
in the Ottoman capital. Some of the most famous were the engraver-printer
Grigor Marzvanets'i, Astuatsatur of Constantinople, Step'anos Petrosian
and the Arabian family. The printers of Constantinople played a
very appreciable role in the diffusion of Armenian culture [288,
289]. For the first time a series of the important works of ancient
Armenian historians and philosophers was published such as History
of the Armenians by Agat'angeghos  in 1709, Treatise on Logic
by Siméon of Julfa, the History attributed to P'awstos Buzand,
Book of Questions by Eghishé, and works by the famous Armenian
rhetor and poet Paghtasar Dpir.
At the end of the eighteenth century in Madras, India, Shahamir
Shahamirian founded an Armenian printing house from which a number
of volumes originated . He was the author of two of the most
important of them, Orogayt' p'arats' (The Trap of Glory)  of
1773 and Nor tetrak or (New Notebook Called the Guide), works dedicated
to history and politics that had a powerful influence on the national
liberation movement within the Armenian community in India. In Madras
Harut'iwn Shmavonian also opened a printing press; his greatest
service to the art was the publication of the first periodical in
Armenian, Azdarar  of which eighteen numbers were issued from
1794 to 1796.
The first Armenian printing house in Russia was set up in Saint
Petersburg in 1781. Grigor Khaldariants' had type sent from London,
and under the sponsorship of the Primate of Armenians in Russia,
Bishop Hovsep' Arghut'ian, he edited the first Armenian book to
be published in the Tsarist realm, Tetrak aybbenakan (ABC Reader)
in 1781 . He then printed works such as Banali gitut'ean (The
Key to Science), Shavigh lezvagitut'ean (Linguistic Guide), and
Enhanrakan (Encyclical Letter) by Nersés Shnorhali.
After the death of Khaldariants', Arghut'ian transferred the press
to the Armenian colony in Nor Nakhichevan in Southern Russia, where
he published several precious books including the metric work of
Hakob Nalian, Grk'oyks koch'ets'eal hogeshah (Book Called Enrichment
of the Soul). Later the operation was again moved to Astrakhan where
several more titles were published.
Although Armenian printing was started as early as 1512, due to
the precarious conditions and political turmoil in Armenian proper,
the first press to be established on native soil only came 250 years
later. In the second half of the eighteenth century thanks to the
Catholicos of Etchmiadzin Siméon Erevants'i's efforts, the
situation of Armenians in the homeland was improved. He organized
the instruction of children, supervised the reorganization of the
monastery library, and founded at Etchmiadzin the first Armenian
printing press under the sponsorship of Grigor Mik'ayelian-Ch'ak'ikian.
The solemn opening of the press was in 1771, and in the following
year the first book to be printed on Armenia soil appeared: Siméon
Erevants'i, Zbosaran hogevor (Spiritual Recreation). After that
a Tagharan (Song Book), a Girk' aghot'its' (Book of Prayers) 
and other important works were published. Very soon the Holy See
of Etchmiadzin created next to the printing house a small paper
factory and a foundry for the manufacture of Armenian font.
In the nineteenth century numerous new printing firms were opened
everywhere Armenians lived: Erevan, Shushi (Karabagh), Van, Mush,
Alexandropol (Leninakan), New Bayazid (Kamo), Akhaltskha (Armenian
Georgia), Ganja (Azerbaijan), and also in Moscow, Tbilissi, Baku,
Shamakhi, Rostov, Theodosia (Crimea), Jerusalem (St. James Patriarchate),
Calcutta, Bombay, Singapore, Teheran, the Island of Malta, New York,
Boston, Geneva, Varna and Rusjuk (Bulgaria), Athens, Cairo, Alexandria,
and in quite a few other places. The first Armenian printers as
the Armenian scribes of the Middle Ages did not spare any efforts;
thanks to their sacrifice, works which remain the glories of Armenian
literature came into being or were saved from disappearing.
Armenia continues to cherish this important legacy of 1600 years
of codex and book production. The famous and unique Institute of
Ancient Manuscripts, the Matenadaran, in Erevan is named after the
creator of the Armenian alphabet, Mesrop Mashtots', while the largest
printing house in Armenia bears the name of the first Armenian printer,
Stamped and Tooled Leather Bindings
The history of leather work in Armenia is known exclusively through
bindings of manuscripts. The practice of protecting a manuscript
with boards covered with leather goes back to the very invention
of the codex in the first Christian centuries. Before that books
were in the form of scrolls or continuous rolls of papyrus. The
idea of folding leaves of papyrus and then attaching the folded
leaves by sewing one to the other through the fold produced the
codex or book as we know it. This invention allowed the reader to
find the passage he wanted by simply turning the pages instead of
the old method of unrolling a long scroll. When papyrus, a very
fragile material not easily folded, was replaced by the more robust
parchment or vellum durability was added but the pages tended to
curl. Thus wooden boards were added at the front and back of the
codex to keep the pages flat and protect them from tearing. These
were attached to the body of the manuscript by the threads used
to sew the gatherings of folded pages together. To conceal the sewing
threads and to consolidate the binding a single piece of leather
was stretched over the upper and lower covers and the spine of the
Because of the dry climatic conditions in Egypt, bindings from the
early Christian centuries have survived on Coptic religious manuscripts.
Already these earliest covers, as well as those from the centuries
that followed in the Christian and the neighboring Islamic world,
were decorated by tooling. The decoration was a mixture of geometric
forms -- circles, squares, stars -- and a variety of braided patterns
as well as small stamped designs like rosettes.
The binding of a manuscript is its protector and preserver. If text
and illuminations are the flesh of a codex, the binding is its skin
and bones. It is gratuitous, surely, to emphasize that there are
nearly as many Armenian bindings preserved as there are manuscripts.
Unfortunately, they have been little studied.
Armenian binding technique, like that of the Greeks and Syrians,
followed the conventions developed by Coptic binders at the birth
of the codex. The blind tooling technique used by the Copts, and
later by Islamic binders, was incorporated into the Armenian craft.
Designs were executed on the leather (which was usually moistened)
with a blunt metal stylus, ruler, compass, punch and, eventually,
enhanced with iron stamps of varying motifs. As in other artistic
media, however, Armenia went its own way, especially in the decoration
of the leather.
The earliest preserved Armenian leather bindings are from the eleventh
century; the earliest binder's colophons are from the tenth-eleventh
centuries. In this period bookbinding had become a specialized and
highly developed art in medieval Armenia. Elaborately decorated
bindings followed the artistic fashion of the time, for instance
borrowing designs used for the ornamentation of memorial cross stones
The most characteristic decorative motifs of early Armenian bindings
were an elaborately braided cross mounted on a stepped pedestal
in the central field of the upper cover  and a rectangle filled
with braiding in the central field of the lower cover . The
popularity of this braided cross motif is attested to by its appearance
in drawings and miniatures in several tenth to thirteenth century
manuscripts. Another motif, a complicated geometric rosette ,
is found as early as the late twelfth century; its inspiration is
almost certainly from early Egyptian bindings.
Decoration was not, however, limited to these designs. A large variety
of geometric forms was used, and later, floral as well as the traditional
braided bands were employed. Also typically, Armenian was the affixing
of metal studs, often silver, to outline a design. Diverse stamps
-- guilloche, small oval, double oval, dot, small rosette -- were
used, but animal or bird designs met with in the Byzantine tradition
are lacking. Early bindings usually had flaps and these too were
decorated. Distinct styles developed in the various regions of Armenian
life. Some centers like New Julfa were attracted by westernized
decoration, while others far removed from contact with voyagers
and merchants, such as the monastery of Tatev [298, 299], held strictly
to the traditional motifs. This archaizing tendency coupled with
the repeated rebinding of often used manuscripts such as Gospels,
present problems of dating even when there are binder's colophons.
A particular feature of later Armenian bindings, especially those
from New Julfa in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries,
is the presence of stamped inscriptions, usually dated, on the leather
covers . These inscribed bindings, of which more than one hundred
are recorded, provided precise data for the study of late Armenian
leather craftsmanship. In the same category, but more luxurious,
are the many more manuscript bindings covered with chiseled silver
plaques of great beauty [202, 203, 205, 206, 207, 208, 211]. Armenian
silver bindings survive from the thirteenth century [202, 203].
There are also enameled bindings , and several bindings with
oil paintings executed directly upon the leather are known from
the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries.
As in all other areas of Armenian art, leather bindings differ from
region to region and century to century, but they share the characteristics
mentioned above and thereby belong to a single recognizable family.
261. Ekphonetic Signs, M2374, Gospel, 989. Photo:
262. Neumes, Manuscript, Matenadaran, XIIth century. Photo: Matenadaran
263. Female Troubadour with Saz, M6288, Horomos, 1211. Photo: Matenadaran
264. Neumes, Manuscript, Matenadaran, 1279. Photo: Matenadaran
265. Neumes, Lectionary, Erevan, M979, 1286. Photo: Matenadaran
266. Neumes (Crossing Red Sea), Lectionary, M979, 1286. Photo: Matenadaran
267. Troubadour, Marriage at Cana, Matenadaran, XVIth century. Photo:
268. Group of Musicians, Matenadaran, XVIth or XVIIth century. Photo:
269. Original Manuscript of Komitas Vardapet. Photo: Ara Güler
270. Saz, various sizes. Photo: Gulbenkian Foundation Archive
271. Kaman, various Sizes. Photo: Gulbenkian Foundation Archive
272. Kamancha, various Sizes. Photo: Gulbenkian Foundation Archive
273. T'ar, Various Sizes. Photo: Gulbenkian Foundation Archive
274. Sant'ur, Various Sizes. Photo: Gulbenkian Foundation Archive
275. Percussion Instruments. Photo: Gulbenkian Foundation Archive
276. Urbat'agirk', Yakob Meghapart, Venice, 1512. Photo: Ara Güler
277. Tagharan, Yakob Meghapart, Venice, 1513. Photo: Gulbenkian Foundation
278. Saghmosaran (Psalter), Abkar Dpir, Venice, 1565. Photo: Gulbenkian
279. Tômar Grigorian, Calendar, Rome, 1584. Photo: Ara Güler
280. Harants' vark', (Lives of Fathers), New Julfa, 1641. Photo: Gulbenkian
281. Bible, Voskan, Amsterdam, 1666. Photo: Gulbenkian Foundation
282. Girk' ashkharhats', Amsterdam. 1668. Photo: Ara Güler
283. Grammatica Armenica, Rome, 1675. Photo: Gulbenkian Foundation
284. Arhest hamaroghout'ean, Levonian, Marseille, 1675. Photo: Ara
285. Jashots' (Lectionary), Venise, 1686-1688. Photo: Gulbenkian Foundation
286. Azgabanut'eun tôhmin, Amsterdam, 1695. Photo: Ara Güler
287. World Map of Ghukas, Amsterdam, 1695. Photo: Ara Güler
288. Girk' vipasanut'ean, Constantinople, 1709. Photo: Ara Güler
289. Patmut'iwn k'erakanutean , Constantinople, 1736-1738. Photo:
290. Bargirk' haikazean lezvi, Dictionary, Venice, 1749. Photo: Ara
291. Girk' aghot'its', Prayers, Etchmiadzin, 1772. Photo: Ara Güler
292. Vorogayt' parats', Shahamirian, Madras, 1773. Photo: Gulbenkian
293. Tetrak aybbenakan, St. Petersburg, 1781. Photo: Ara Güler
294. Arakk' Yezobosi, Aesop's Fables, Triest, 1784. Photo: Gulbenkian
295. Azdarar (Monitor), First Armenian Periodical, Madras, 1794. Photo:
Gulbenkian Foundation Archive
296. Erkrach'ap'ut'iwn, Venice, 1794. Photo: Gulbenkian Foundation
297. Leather binding, lower cover, 1577, geometric rosette, binder
Grigor Khach'ets', Venice, San Lazzaro, Library of the Mekhitarist
Fathers, MS 1007, XIVth century. Photo: Dickran Kouymjian
298. Leather binding, upper cover, 1651, Tatev Monastery, braided
cross on stepped altar, Venice, San Lazzaro, Library of the Mekhitarist
Fathers, MS 1476. Photo: Dickran Kouymjian
299. Leather binding, lower cover, 1651, Tatev Monastery, braided
rectangle, Venice, San Lazzaro, Library of the Mekhitarist Fathers,
MS 1476. Photo: Dickran Kouymjian
300. Leather binding, upper cover inscribed and stamped, Armenian
inscription of 1695, Isfahan, Venice, San Lazzaro, Library of the
Mekhitarist Fathers, MS 1351.Inscribed Upper Cover. Photo Dickran